This paper therefore, aims at exploring the role of the traditional religion in sustaining African values, human relations in particular in spite of the challenges of globalization. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual Even thoughmorality is the subject matter of ethics, it is most often usedinterchangeably with ‘ethics’. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. 5 0 obj This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. ��Ǜ�P��\O�;o��!�������MB��N�����2i��^�v��]ۧ��&�&j�v��b��ҥ�K2F�c�w��7��X���D�a���0Y����S�4Џ��&{���+�Ii��n���˯+���B(�z�V �/�ƞo�Ш��Y٠��?U4��OӸ��4����w����Ki��@��,�}\�S��?pИ��qw����p�t�Q����i��'a�E��od\Z~3��-(��ym�8SI+�vV�����QV!ٓI&E 9�2��#�Lf�R�sNwԬ��vҬ�0;aD�a��(��-{�pSkD�:w9t�!�M1̀ s��)�Ű!�!�O��J�a��"���0Ɯ�p>�)����a&L��DA�L�� =H�eP+g �T���m��0Δ�`-���`X+Z�&E0"Vo�I��Ma�T���fs'��gr�j�i� K�]/>�Ĭ��W�`Kȕ�{�䊨�4{��:�}���* <> Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. the like.” African traditional spirituality as an African heritage must be taken seriously for a fuller understanding of African Christian spirituality, particularly of the African Pentecostal churches. differs in African countries was mentioned. ter Haar et al. %PDF-1.5 ,{r��"b�+38XMV:� V߭aUA׌����Μ�DNPt���CM�:��:Y��+/�Ym� y��>��3�� ��M�!�e�J/��"�0�����Nq�"3�_aÇd!+�;���\4C��2-�Ɍ0"+��5�qu�|R�w�!9Kk�C~��V3Mڊ�$��� ߈�2d yF�T�!Jf"e��z��:~ �U� S� d����E�{�hba��E�RVT�Ge�qBz�k���2^�����һo�P)R�}�7ꙌQv���#.��dQש�F4^%y�+X��-�o��"�w�r�ߴ�+l�+����B�?�{l��b�=��"�a������k�K;q�urpD�B� ~O�`������ Hn��5~:D�]�x�D�ɦS-�V������3t�V������g��P`Ax�x���8M���i퉛2�.��O4ۭ�g5ٯ=̹t�拏�̴�� ���D˪T�W��?���n�e![���Cc?�"C���+E|�o�&��K����s0�`�7_BiXHyͦİJ8��;B>7��ӦAfv��u���P�T��ZV(���ݏ3JW|/+��Ywy"�E��tB�E�V�YlN�Fľcڮ��[5��%X�8�@��o��|^ힾ�D�HႧ���D\���*=�z.�)��P������??6`����! African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. G�|�a�[q��i�`Ya�����S����uߡ���/�j�ur��ړS�l��̓���>���:=��dn�����f��sɇ�"GB~%'\����I���k����\��ӗ�d-�0ի=N�U�KY�R>�.\_��]�l7���Bfi'�IF�?���zqJ������\IµÆn ��CP]̌i��8:��L�{�����W�Y�xg]Ը���sjl�L��Ŋ��Wo>�-��'n�3��~�{Y�/ 3�;�N�S�v�؏ ��!�˲�qk��N0�����哜Ww��=��w�h���+�t��Pz�P��w�i`�����} n�O[��)�zi+Q�ΐ;��htu�N6���7C?�*Ch�Hj��b��u6�����/���7hv�f-�0z���5 ���u� �@x�� |S�����ag�t}��N%���8�R{����^�H�_��B�p�:���:;jn:���njp�v������t��:����i���U���L�t����(��em�F�R���^��/�&'n�+����� Culture is part of the African indigenous Religion. This is what made scholars such as Mbiti (1969,p.1), Parrinder (1954,p.9) and Mugambi (1995) conclude … African identity and culture are preserved in African Traditional Religion. However, it is important to acknowledge that there is no uniform African traditional belief in the spirit world as Salala rightly points out (ibid., 134). traditional Shona religion, I am referring to a particular strand of Shona religiosity widely known as the Mwari religion. ;�;m��έ�]����mB��"�D��T�S���U���D��[�뻨j�*�3l�� �D{��k���7��@tB����0�cg]�������Er�+�e��)džs�k��f6cƃRU�iu��,Wdm�lA���ִ��#���OLs8�1��/‰��#����q��s� �v(a���6�l�A�`O/H�vX��*���3��S����О�ME_�q����v�&oM����m?�{���{��ў��nˠ� [͆�D�@�dçIS(P���]�y`�؇nӐe��]���y:f�jG��Z3�y�EԵ���AVOI� ���QF�Yߛ- Religion and culture as powerful institutions within society play a major role in shaping gender roles and perpetuating gender inequality and are powerful institutions within society. The ceremonies bind and form religious values which govern the family and society. For a more detailed treatment of this subject of God in Africa, see Mbiti 1982 and 1992. to ' correct the erroneOUS observatiods, notions, assertions and pontifications of some foreign armchair investigators about . 1 0 obj African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The whole community faithfully carries out all rites and rituals connected with rites of passage such as birth, puberty, marriage, death and life after death. Mugambi, 1995). T~E ROLE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP IN MODERN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA: SERVICE PROVISIONING IN RURAL AREAS BY PHUTI SOLOMON MATLOA: STUDENT NO: 204000139 Submitted in Part Fulfilment for the Requirements for the Degree Ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives and generally most of them are good and kind. They provided food and traditional medicine to the fighters. ���)IM� ����u�Um�$%��`��Y�.� ��e��K�G�!aD�zIY@�ߝZ0�.�c�`K�ᣅ�����Z}@C��w2��Q�G����(a��{��(�[L �W�*N�rD�B�a);�S�����~Fi������ �,��ܒ��I4���:+;WFK���%�>C�9q+B`�HX��⇯acp��[:Z|.�߇{���-��=��Lk�I��;�Ys���x�%M��q���UX���j&n� S! A lot of leaders have emerged from the African religion. on account of the persistent marginalisation of African Traditional Religion (ATR) in Sierra Leone by Islam and Christianity, to investigate the place of ATR in inter-religious encounters in the country since the advent of Islam and Christianity. �|�,utǡ��v��2Q��d�jrq�f��M7PC�)2����-|�O���7,�0�[�i=�_�a/�O�m��"Ɗ����X`��Yꟿ��2��FpX�Bj�s�FxCq�DdÐ���`��%��*Ȱ��g,-J1��eطа��*��ۃj�j�q,tm{w������>q��A�sA��qN$��D� ��/� DI�41���@ ���tD�}r�;ں�Y ���w�,XV��z����wi��A�1JtЊvr�lf������F�aD7E���@άs���� 0��0�=�ᰆ���L��"�q�{VΝ��f\}io�K�y=�lXS.P������6ChXێ m�%� ~�nUƫ�V��)=v�p%F��B�vy����}�+6,�0+V8sG����&>K�_��i�ͯ���B��O���ntQ�v�y�C��N��ž�[ׄ�I�ձ�'u�v�R����;�}�h��A/D|أ+ӮI�9Ҋ�����Q$c��L,��� It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on.because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. ��s���33� �/��l�s�D��wc2�iY�pFn�>� ���u�fF'dX�eA^Ƥl4ӛa*�0(��1��l� �HLt�A�@a�2�O�>�b�O����k���)x��6*. These figures represent peo-ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. African Traditional Religion (ATR) or African Religion in this paper gave meaning and a sense of purpose to all aspects of thought and action (cf. 2 0 obj 3 0 obj �_�v�`CE�]11m��Y�*��u\����M�ᥟ����Oyr&j忯Wh-�9��^ə�e29�b�&5�V�.��$�: z���0�w��EF'w��e��{���A��f\�^�#�v��U��?�g�)_c�x}����4�N��^�[��o��� The African life is wrapped in religion. where one’s family came from. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part and parcel of every major or minor event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as fetching firewood. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. Mwali Religion. %�쏢 The African traditional �P֫)�k:�J���5��Vw@t2^�a�oz�j"�Nܘ�*����YLyys� [+F���[L|���h�{���g�RB7���y�Z%��u2Y���XgG�{����緯|�ʤ�k2��i��)���@C��4��|L����)zɘB �N�t�� �1�4w�� L[���0�R�˼��w崓���B[e��-�bҊ-�K�3���1��Ȃx�$!j6�H�R��+��.��h(��. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. The term ‘ethics’ is technically used by philosophers tomean a philosophical study of morality—morality understood as aset of social rules, principles, norms that guide or are intended toguide the conduct of people in a society, and as beliefs about rightand wrong conduct as well as good or bad character. Some took part as freedom fighters and gained recognition as heroines. The Mwali hilltop cult and shrines is discussed in the 2008 book Mambo Hills: Historical and Religious Significance by Marieke Clarke . The Cosmos Traditional Africans believe that the cosmos was created by a Supreme Being, God. Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity i.e. Religion 20 [1990] contains some articles on the study of African Religions that are worth reading. ?a ��p ?��wUu�U���of�y ����:���ά���N�S���>~��ŏ~3���?��ӗ��˅��O��~����޸�����7��eYeß�iv�֧y��dOo�����׮��;,�����n��/�_]����ˇWC7���i�GW�C�k=L�������ܩy4�땾H�'WK���������tv^�t��U��j��B�?-�>��+Q���a���>��oeX��5x�J�]�؉6x��Ҧ���Y��LK�U���a� � African identity and culture are preserved in African traditional religion can not be. He tried to demonstrate the applicability of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and significance! Starts before birth and does not end after death Maluleke ( 1994 ) is one.! 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