ahiiā, cf. 3. : nom. pōi ( < *pH-aí) “to protect,” YAv. (OPers. paŋtaŋhum “a fifth” from *paŋktahṷəm. —Plur. xi, xiii, for tables of the Pahlavi and Psalter scripts; and Aramaic, i.). —Inj. Present stems containing infixed -n-. Vedic vratá-. tə̄m, kə̄m, OAv. gauuō (Vedic gāˊvaḥ), acc. -šīš), YAv. -xš (vaxš < vā/ăc- “voice,” druxš < druj- “lie”); -ś + s > Av. perf sing. —Plur. vī’uuǡŋhəm (Vedic vidvāˊṁsam); —dat. aniya-; Av. gairibiiō, daŋ́hubiiō; —gen. pronouncekiwi - How To Pronounce Avestan. (This was the only comprehensive phonetic and phonemic analysis of Avestan until 1979.) of consonant stems in YAv. —Part. nom. H. Reichelt, Awestisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg, 1909, repr. spelling ar(š) also into OAv. This ambiguity is due in part to inadequacies of the Aramaic alphabet from which it developed, in part to the phonological development of the Middle Persian language (“historical spelling”), and in part to the graphic coalescence of signs. —Neuter forms: acc. nərəbiias-cā, YAv. Words designating male and female beings are masculine and feminine respectively, but also many words that designate inanimate objects and concepts are masculine or feminine and not neuter as might be expected. OAv. On xᵛ see also under (f) below. 3. kərənaon (with -naon < *-noṷən). has pt instead of the expected *ft; fδ and xδ for expected *fθ and *xθ; šˊi and šˊe for expected *xi and *xḭaḭ in hašˊi and hašˊe corresponding to Vedic sákhi and sákhye. This video is unavailable. But *hi became x́ ii- in OAv. aiiarə “day” contrasts with gen. sing. The earliest Pahlavi manuscripts date from the fourteenth century A.D., but the Pahlavi cursive script must have developed from the Aramaic script already in the first centuries A.D. Vedic dhruvá-. pres. we find both -ārə and -ąn, -ə̄ni, e.g., OAv. An unusual diacritic in the form of a loop at the end of a curved flourish was used to distinguish h (53) from a (1). 1. dōišā, 3. və̄nghaitī, və̄nghaṱ, varəšaiti. ciš, ciš-cā/ă, naē-ciš (Latin quis, quis-que, nīquis); —acc. Present stems in -nu-. aētahmāṱ, yahmāṱ, kahmāṱ (Vedic yásmāt); —loc. hōi, YAv. Pahlavi ēw “one” was probably pronounced simply as ē already at an early date. and acc. The optative expresses volition and potentiality. OAv. Deliberate alteration of the text in the course of an orthoepic revision (“School text”); 5. daēnaiiāi, aṧaoniiāi; —abl. nom. as those of the ā-declension nouns. —Plur. 1. ǡŋhāmā (< *aŋhāma), 3. aŋhən, vasən. and inj. There is some redundancy in the script due to the representation of a number of allophones and the pronunciation of a few of the letters is uncertain. vacə̄bīš (instr. gə̄uš (Vedic góḥ), YAv. uobhso-. forms of "n", "sh", and "t" are with tongue at same position as for English th in 'thin'), as w in Dutch water (a bilabial semivowel similar to Engl. The morphology of Avestan nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs is, like that of the closely related Old Persian, inherited from Proto-Indo-European via Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Aryan), and agrees largely with that of Vedic, the oldest known form of Indo-Aryan. YAv. The remaining forms have the zero grade as far as that is phonologically possible. G. Windfuhr, “Diacritic and Distinctive Features in Avestan,” JAOS 91, 1971, pp. t̰bi- (t̰bišiiant- and by analogy t̰baēšah-). —Opt. ṷ underwent further changes. original *-ṷḭ- in hāuuōiia (inst. OAv. In the athematic daδāiti “he puts; he gives,” cf. sing. have nəmah- beside manah-. θβąm (OPers. —Opt. aniie, vīspe (Vedic anye, víśve), aniiaēšąm, vīspaēšąm (Vedic anyéṣām, víśveṣām). Vedic raghúm; druuaṇt- from *druγṷant-, cf. pres. -maiy). Vedic vidvāˊn); —acc. The thematic aorist. —Opt. internationalen Orientalisten-Kongresses, Hamburg, September 1902, Leiden, 1904, pp. Vedic drapsá-; fšu- from *pśu- to pasu- “cattle.” Similarly Av. gāuš (Vedic gáuḥ), acc. anā (OPers. Avestan is the language of the earliest sacred texts belonging to the Zoroastrian religion. narəm (Vedic náram), YAv. as those of the a-declension nouns and in the fem. has st from *-tst- from t/d + t as in vista- “found” from *ṷidstá-, cf. ī-stem words, e.g., nāirī- “woman,” aṧaonī- “righteous” (fem. pres. A peculiarity of the nt. Proto-IE. hauv); —inst. Characteristic pronominal forms are, e.g., masc. 3. cīšiiāṱ, mərąsiiāṱ ( < *mṛṇčḭāt). Vedic mátsya-; YAv. 47-62, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/avestan-language (accessed on 30 December 2012). 1. baire, 2. OAv. vərəṇtē “he wishes” beside Vedic vṛṇīte; OAv. ptā, YAv. 1. duuaidī ( < *dh-ṷadhi) “we two destined.” —Subj. č, ǰ, ǰh, which in Vedic became c, j, h, survived in Av. Thirty-seven verbs use the verb root as aorist stem without the addition of any further morphological feature. pronouncekiwi. OAv. Vedic hvaya-, from Proto-Indo-Ir. sing. 3. čīšiiąn. sing. raēm (Vedic rayím), inst. 2. daduiiē ( < dh-a-dhṷaḭ), 3. dǡṇtē. and YAv. The special perfect endings indicate, together with the perfect stem, the state arrived at as a result of an action (“I have praised”). darəgō.bāzāuš “long-armed;” inst. gao-spəṇta. aor. The addition of a primary ending to the present stem results in an indicative present whereas the addition of a secondary ending to the present stem results in an injunctive present. OAv., YAv. Vedic praśná-; YAv. -yan-/-γn- “striking,” in vərəθra-jan- “breaking the resistance.” Sing. Sing. Neither of the forms of δ (29) appears to be based on Pahlavi letters. spā (Vedic śvāˊ); acc. imaṱ. before e: YAv. Vedic ubháya-; uua “both,” cf. —Opt. ends in -ǡ < *āh, e.g., OAv. vaheḥī- (fem.) ə̄nəiti- from *əniiti- and drəguuaṇt- from *drugṷant-. Mazdāi, gen. Mazdǡ. For Old Avestan the following stages may be assumed: 1. Enclitic forms: acc. : gə̄uš, mańiiə̄uš, mərəθiiaoš. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Avestan on pronouncekiwi. manǡ with -ǡ < *-ās, inst. pres. kauuā, huš.haxā, YAv. ( < *-i-Nš) gairīš; ( < -u-Nš) xratūš; —dat. The participles have -ąs in OAv. Avestan Syntax.. i . It is formed by adding to the low-grade tense stems the suffix -ḭā-/-ī- and the secondary endings. Avesta Pronunciation and Writing NOTE: You will need Avestan fonts in order to read this text. from Proto-IE. OAv. aiiąn ( < *aḭəŋh); *azar “day” (Vedic áhar) contrasts with dat. —Plur. Vedic ṛtāvā. These are known as the present, aorist, and perfect stems. to -ŋ́h- from *-ŋhi̯-. as c, j, j. sing. Vedic kaváyaḥ “seers;” srāuuahiieitī “he desires fame,” cf. -ā/ă ( < Proto-IE. and then šˊii in the Sasanian archetype. in OAv. sing. duγδar-. taṱ (Vedic tát), YAv. —Plur. Darmstadt, 1968, pp. Medially hr became ŋr in YAv. Proto-Ir. The Proto-Indo-Ir. —Opt. drəguuǡ, YAv. yesnē/ĕ (zastaiia < *-aḭ + ā); OAv. The YAv. nt. nt. ime; —acc. OAv. -š (vīš < vis-, Vedic víś-, “settlement”); -t (d) + s > Av. Dialect influences as a result of the transfer of the Av. Vedic vitttá- < vid); vərəzda “increased” (Vedic vṛddhá- < *ṷṛdzdhá- < *ṷṛdhz-tó-); jata- “slain” (Vedic jātá- < han) from root jan; zāta- “born” (Vedic jātá- with -ā- < ṇH-) from root zanH. Vedic śatám; zaoša- “pleasure,” cf. Thus, it has been usual to use ḣ for x́ ; č and ǰ for c and j; w for β; n for both n and ṇ; š for š, š′, and ṧ; y for both y (ẏ) and ii; v for both v and uu. Vedic ayāni; zbaiiemi “I call,” cf. The original language of the Zarathustrian Gāthās, the Yasna Haptaŋhāiti, and the four sacred prayers; 2. : acc. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Avestan script languages on pronouncekiwi. nom. from daēuua- “devil.” Proto-Av. In final position *-ans became -ə̄ṇg in OAv. Greek influence, in the form of the full representation of vowel sounds, is also present. (from the pronoun ta-, aēta-) YAv. ə (the vocalization of a consonantal laryngal H) is attested by such forms as Av. *-ṇ), e.g., YAv. sing. sing. 1. -āḥ from -ās); sāsnǡ “commandments” (by analogy also sāsnǡs-ca “and commandments”). In the Avestan script a flourish was added to distinguish x́ (19) from xᵛ (20). Some special forms for the 3. sing. As in the case of the OAv. There are three kinds of thematic aorist. dai’iiāṱ, daiθiiāṱ. pres. Sing. Darmstadt, 1967. vahiiō, YAv. : YAv. Root nouns, etc. pres. -iiāṱ; —gen. ī. xᵛāθra- “welfare” from *hu-āθra-, cf. The Proto-Indo-Ir. nə̄, YAv. in facsimile by K. M. JamaspAsa) ą̇ (6) is found instead of ą (5). ṛH developed in Proto-Ir. In the manuscripts these forms are often miswritten, e.g., nərə̄uš for nərə̄š. a-ta-ra [anrar]. Vedic śréyas- (from Proto-Indo-Ir. —Imv. cinas “she assigns” with -s from *-st; vąs “it prevailed” from *vān-s-t; OAv. 1. barāma, 2. āθā, 3. barǡṇti, barąn. huuō ( < *haṷ), YAv. —Imv. OAv. n-stems is the formation of the gen. sing. Attested forms and stages of development. The last three cases have disyllabic endings -ąm, -āi, -ǡ. paṇtā-/paθ- “way, path.” Sing. and fem. Both are early Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. The remaining cases were formed from an n-stem in Proto-IE. Sing. *-es (āpō); —acc. rāzarə “directive” has n-stem forms in the inst. —Plur. vīša- “poison,” cf. final -ą is always long) and in monosyllabic words. In all other positions Proto-Indo-Ir. ; the dual nom.-acc. —Plur. Vedic asrá- “painful;” daŋra- “knowing,” cf. —Plur. —Plur. The Persian-Avestan alphabet was designed to be used preferably with phonemic orthography, meaning its letters correspond exactly to the phonemes intended. ōi; —voc. ima; —dat. hē/šē (OPers. —Dual: nom. nom. occlusives p, t, k, became f, θ, x in Proto-Ir. After Proto-Indo-Ir. W. B. Henning, “The Disintegration of the Avestic Studies,” TPS, 1942, pp. paiti, mainiiū; —inst. gaoṱ, gen. gə̄uš (Vedic góḥ), voc. ātərəbiiō; gen. YAv. h. This h was kept initially before a vowel: hafta “seven,” cf. plur. The Avestan letter ā (2) is also derived from the Pahlavi script, where this sign was used for ʾy at the end of a word (already in the Istanbul sarcophagus inscription). OAv. Vedic smasi. pres. One of the writing systems used for the Middle Persian language. haṇt- (sing. daēnā- “religion” (from *dai̯ənā-) was introduced into OAv. huuō “yonder” (from *haṷ, cf. adjective from aṧauuan-) are largely parallel. Vedic. sing.) Vedic áśva-. -arš ( < -ṛ-š) corresponds to Vedic -ur: zaotarš “of the sacrificer” = Vedic hótur. 3. dazdā ( < *dha-dhz + ta), dasta. sing. The letter e (9) seems to have a similar origin. —Inj. of zruuan- masc. —Subj. OAv., YAv. parāth- “to sell” from *parā-daθa-, cf. The primary palatal affricates of Proto-Indo-Ir., namely ć, jˊ and jh from Proto-IE. —Part. OAv. Demonstrative pronouns: ta- “this,” aēta- “this,” auua- “that one over there (yonder);” relative pronoun ya- “who, which;” interrogative pronoun ka-/ca- “who, which” (when followed by the enclitics -cā/ă, cī/ĭṱ, this becomes an indefinite pronoun “whoever, whichever”). The subjunctive expresses volition and futurity. Active inflection: indic. kauuaii- “seer” and haxāii- “companion.” Sing. —Imv. There are four kinds of personal endings: the primary and secondary endings, the imperative endings, and the perfect endings. dāmąm, nāmąm: YAv. gauue (Vedic gáve); abl. Many Avestan verbal forms have counterparts in the Vedic language. In particular, the shwa, and different -ata, 3. barən. aēšō (Vedic eṣá); (from the pronoun auua-) OAv. See more ideas about language, ancient alphabets, zoroastrian. -maidī, cf. In Pahlavi the sign for k (17) represented both the sounds k and γ, because k had developed to γ in word-interior position. Thus we find: YAv. jamiiąn, jamiiārəš. and Mid. manaŋhe, gen. sing. Anaptyxis and epenthesis may occur together: YAv. Mid. nom. The root presents. ābīš; —dat. sing. sing. Similarly, Av. After t the ə was usually dropped: ātrə̄m (acc. 1. ahmī/ĭ, mraomī/ĭ, vasəmī; stāumi, 2, ahī/ĭ, vašī/ĭ, 3. astī/ĭ, mraoiti, vaštī; tāšti, sāstī. OAv. —Imv. Both Proto-Iranian and Vedic go back to Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Aryan, which in turn descends from Proto-Indo-European. Since Vedic is attested by an extensive literature that enables its grammatical forms to be determined with exactitude, it is possible to establish the complicated Avestan verbal system with considerable certainty by comparing it systematically with Vedic. The moods of the verb are: indicative, injunctive, imperative, subjunctive, and optative. ząm (Vedic kṣāˊm), ziiąm; inst. and inj. forms OAv. —Inj. *-ē/*-ō with loss of the final consonant, e.g., tašā “carpenter” (Vedic tákṣā, Greek téktōn); OAv. After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanian Empire in 642 AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion. —Opt. Vedic jóṣa-; zaotar “priest;” cf. Watch Queue Queue dadaṱ, YAv. 2. fərašuuā. Elsewhere it is replaced by *-uṷǡ / *-mǡ ( < *-ṷāh / *-māh): OAv. sing. sing. —Plur. The original language of the composers of grammatically correct YAv. In this way the flourish could be reinterpreted as a diacritical mark, which the creator of the script put to further use. to ar whereas Vedic had either ir/ur or īr/ūr. narąm (Vedic nárām); OAv. aētahe, auuaŋ́he, OAv. Vedic vṛddhá-. —Plur. nǡ, YAv. )” from *ruraudst; YAv. plur. The perfect system. has only ə̄/ə̆ in sə̄ṇgha- “pronouncement,” cf. are not specified. to ŋ́h and ŋᵛh; see (a) above. Final -t was lost after n, probably already in Proto-Indo-Ir., and also after s. Examples are: YAv. OAv., YAv. OAv. These came about partly due to phonological development caused by the surrounding sounds, partly due to the liturgical chanting, and partly due to dialect influence. gāuuā (Vedic gāˊvā). šōiθra- “dwelling-place,” cf. vašnā) from vas-; OAv. and Proto-Aryan. tuuə̄m, cf. 1-2. yasnanąm; —loc. sing. γž-, γəm-, and γən-. Proto-Ir. When ah-stems are used as masculines, e.g., in the case of the comparative suffix -ḭah-, the nom. The middle may be reflexive, reciprocal, or passive, etc. Feb 23, 2016 - The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD to write Avestan, the language of the Zorastrian scriptures. xšnā- “to know;” žnu- “knee,” cf. In the “weak” cases the stem ends in simple -n-, -r- before an ending beginning with a vowel but in -a- ( < Proto-IE. tūiriia- “father’s brother” from *təurii̯a- from older *tərṷii̯a- and ultimately from Proto-Indo-Ir. paiθī (Vedic pathī). sing.) Ser. S. N. Sokolov, “Yazyk Avesty,” in V. J. Abaev, ed., Osnovy iranskogo yazykoznaniya I: Drevneiranskie yazyki, Moscow, 1979, pp. The same stroke may subsequently have been used by analogy in order to differentiate between ī and i and between ū and u. OAv. nąma “name” (Vedic nāˊma, Latin nōmen), in the nom.-acc. plur. On the whole the nasals n and m remained unchanged in Av., but they are regularly written ṇ before t, d, k, g, c, j, b. aoγžā “you say” from *aṷgh-sa; vašī “you wish,” cf. has also bi- perhaps by dissimilation; bitiia- “second” beside OAv. avestan pronunciation - How to properly say avestan. The Avestan script is known from manuscripts written in Iran (at Yazd and Kerman) and in India (in Gujarat, e.g., Cambay, Broach, Ankleshwar, Surat, and Navsari). Based on the Avestan alphabet, a phonetic alphabet originally used to write Avestan, the language of the Avesta, the primary sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. uuaiia, uuaēm “on both sides,” cf. sing. 3. dadəṇtē. Pronunciation of Avesta with 2 audio pronunciations, 4 synonyms, 1 meaning, 4 translations, 17 sentences and more for Avesta. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. but became -hii- in the Sasanian archetype. The desideratives are characterized by reduplication and the addition of the suffix *-sa- (-ha-, -ša-), e.g., su-srū-ša- “wish to hear.” In some cases the present stems look quite different from the root, e.g., sixša- (Vedic śikṣa-) “wish to be able (sak), learn,” diβža- (Vedic dipsa-) “wish to cheat (dab).” The future stem in *-sḭa- (-hḭa-, -šḭa-) can also be classified as a thematic present, e.g., vax-šiiā “I shall say.”. The commonest such verb is kar “to make, do.”. —Fem. and fem. but became nm- in YAv. Examples are masc. —Plur. maiiā; —dat. The indic. 3. uruuāxšaṱ (with -aṱ from *-ṇt). (See the bibliography in Ph. ā/ăiia (Vedic ayāˊ); —dat. —Subj. OAv. and dual nom. sraiiah- “more excellent,” cf. The creator of the Avestan script took over from the Pahlavi cursive script the letters a, i, k, t, p, b, m, n, r, s, z, š, and xᵛ to represent the same sounds as in Pahlavi. padəbīš (cf. zānu “knee” (Vedic jāˊnu) has abl. and inj. OAv. sing.) *-en-, *-er-) and -ān-, -ār- ( < Proto-IE. YAv. —Dual: nom. aor. As yet few plausible statements can be made concerning the origin of the remaining letters of the Avestan alphabet, but it must be accepted that the creator of a script is free to invent letters or diacritics arbitrarily. —Plur. OAv. 1. cinahmi, 3. cinasti, vinasti. —Dual 3. baratō. drəguuaṇt-. Verbal adjectives ending in -ta have almost always passive meaning, but there are exceptions such as gata- (= Vedic gatá-) “gone.” If phonologically possible the root appears in the zero grade, e.g., -uxta- “said” (Vedic uktá- < vac); vista “found” (< *ṷidz-tá-, cf. 4-6; 18, 1973, p. 1. In the case of the personal pronouns no distinction of gender is made, but masculine, feminine, and neuter are distinguished in the demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns. sing. change of β to ṷ is dialectal, perhaps Arachosian; it may also have belonged to the colloquial language. The commonest of those heterograms is the preposition ʿL “to, at,” which was read in Middle Persian as ō (MacKenzie, Pahlavi Dictionary, p. 187, left column, 3rd line from the top). The remaining cases are “weak,” that is, they show zero grade or a short vowel in the stem. 1. barāni, 2. barāhi, 3. and was lost in Av. yeŋ́he, OAv. of all Avesta graphemes. 1. The Avesta was handed down orally among Zoroastrian priests for more than a thousand years, and when it was committed to writing, probably for the first time during the Sasanian period (3rd - 7th centuries AD), a special alphabet was devised to record the traditional pronunciation of its language. 2. staota, 3. hə̄ṇtu. 92-93.). —Dual 3. jamaētē. —Plur. In the other “strong” cases we find both -an-, -ar- ( < Proto-IE. A late but consistent change is that of -uṷe (from earlier *-uṷai̯ and *-ṷai̯) to -uiie: OAv. -aθā, 3. barəṇti. Like Vedic and Proto-IE., Avestan distinguishes three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. ( = OPers. huuāuuōiia ( < *huṷaβḭa). satəm “hundred,” cf. Many of the letters are derived from the old Pahlavi alphabet of Persia, which itself was derived from the Aramaic alphabet. Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی) and pronunciation Notable features Type of writing system: abjad - includes letters only for consonants. -aiiaṇta. In Pahlavi, alef had coalesced graphically with h, from which it was still distinguished in the Psalter script. (rāšnąm); huuarə “sun” (Vedic súvar) contrasts with gen. sing. strąm. masc. masc. pres. Irregular nouns. Even intervocalic i̯ and ṷ are sometimes written iy and uv in OPers. YAv. Examples: masc. -aēta, 3. baraiiən. sing. The letter ṇ probably represents a uvular nasal that was articulated just by lowering the soft palate. AVESTAN LANGUAGE, the language of the Avesta, an Old Iranian language. yim beside OAv. Changes involved by the practice of slow chanting; 3. : nom. : nom. A subgroup has the long grade in the act. sing. xšmaṱ, OAv., YAv. baršna “in height, depth” ( = OPers. mā . ii̯ and uṷ may have developed in West Iran under the influence of Old Persian, where every postconsonantal ḭ and ṷ became iy and uv respectively: Av. plur. nāist “he cursed” from *nāid-s-t; OAv. The end of the oral transmission: phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype, probably in the fourth century A.D.; 6. ābiiō; —gen. 1. : nom. K. Hoffmann, “Zum Zeicheninventar der Avesta-Schrift,” in Festgabe deutscher Iranisten zur 2500 Jahrfeier Irans, Stuttgart, 1971, pp. The transliteration given in Table 2 differs in some points from that almost universally used until recently. Thus we find vīspa- “all” with ī indicating a (short) open vowel: cf. sing. The masc. rautah-. The same sound no doubt occurred in OPers. Pahlavi p represented the sounds p/(f)/β. āθre; abl. Masc. Middle inflection: inj. -huu- (from -hṷ-) and original YAv. and throughout the subj. The irregularity of the Avestan pronominal inflection is almost entirely inherited from Proto-Indo-Ir. Cuneiform, Pahlavi, Aramaic, and Avestan, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Vedic váṣṭi beside váśmi; OAv. plur.) aor. sing. Neuter h-stem words with -ah- < *-as- have in the nom.-acc. stem is identical with the verb root, e.g., ah-/h- “to be” (Vedic as-/s-), mrauu-/mrū- “to speak” (Vedic bravi-/brū-); vas-/us- “to wish” (Vedic vaś-/uś-). Currently popular pronunciations. pres. θṷ became θβ in Av. mamnāna- “having thought,” vāuuərəzāna- “having been done.”, Infinitives. yauuōi, yauuē, gen. yaoš.dāuru “wood” (Vedic dāˊru) has gen. sing. and nt. In order to represent the sound xᵛ in Avestan, use was made of an ambiguous Pahlavi ligature (20) of ʾ/h + w/n/r, which among many others had the value xw. THE AVESTAN ALPHABET 1. from yasna- “veneration.” In some environments a became o: between p, m, ṷ and a syllable containing u (but not ṷ): pouru “much;” mošū “soon;” vohu “good,” but there are exceptions: vaŋhuš “good;” pasu- “cattle;” maδu- “wine.”. OAv. āpəm, vācim, but inst. forms of the active and throughout the subj. is formed by prefixing the augment a- to the injunctive. 688-704). sąs “it seemed” from *sśānd-s-t. 1. yauuā, dat. dim (OPers. the gen. sing. daibitā. sing. žnubiias-ciṱ. Reduplicated present stems. The perf. ending, cf. pres. kana; —dat. Most of these character are from the English alphabet, but some are adopted from the Greek alphabet, and a few special characters have been introduced. and fem. hm is retained internally as in ahmi “I am” but the h is lost in initial position: mahi “we are,” cf. və̄, YAv. The graph -gət may represent an implosive -k / -g in YAv. *-on-, *-or-), e.g., OAv. s and z became š and ž: Av. vaŋhušu. Middle inflection: indic. -āiti, barāṱ. In the Sasanian archetype the semivowels i̯and ṷ were always written ẏ and v in word-initial position. pres. (a-)məhmaidī. Vedic catvāˊraḥ, Sogd. The fact that jiia “bowstring” and kuua “where” were disyllabic in YAv., cf. accent rk became hrk and rp became hrp: mahrka- “destruction,” cf. Even ṧ (46) could be a modification of š (49) if the sound it represents was already some kind of š sound at the time the script was invented (see on phonology below). plur.). sīšōiṱ “may he instruct,” hanaēmā “may we earn.” Middle inj. nom. rāiiō (Vedic rāyáḥ). *śrai̯Hi̯as-); gauuāstriia- “belonging to the cattle pasture” from *gaṷ-ṷāstriia-. sing. —Dual nom./acc. As in East Iranian dialects, Av. Automatically generated examples: "Avestan / ə ˈ v ɛ s t ən /, also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). —Opt. The Pahlavi alef was adopted as a (1) in the Avestan alphabet. Proto-Ir. change of j to the palatal *žˊ, always written ž, is dialectal, perhaps Arachosian: druža- “to deceive” from *drujḭa-, cf. sing.) Proto-Ir. has βž from *bzh: diβža- “to deceive,” cf. Vedic víśva-. 14.) has a: saŋha-, manaŋha. masc. OAv. maṧiiə̄ṇg, maṧiiąs-ca, YAv. zǡ (Vedic kṣāˊḥ), ziiǡ; acc. ending, cf. —Dual 3. gąm (Vedic gāˊm), inst. Vedic vāyú-; zaiiata “he was born,” cf. -aēibiiō; —gen. 1. friiąnmahī ( < *frinmahi), 3. frīnəṇti. E. Benveniste, Les infinitifs avestiques, Paris, 1935. dəṇg (Vedic dán < *dám-s); loc. Vedic snāˊvan-; asti “he is,” cf. manā). auui “to,” which is also written aoui, aoi, from *aβi contrasting with aiβi in nominal compounds, cf. With the exception of certain nominal forms such as participles, every verbal form terminates with a personal ending. ōiium from aēuua- “one;” YAv. This pronunciation may reflect the secondary accentuation *ahḭá-ca. The inflection of fem. Final -āh became -ǡ (cf. 1. vaēda, 2. vōistā, dadāθā, 3. vaēdā. —Imv. sing. Vedic vakṣi, from Proto-IE. avaiy), OAv., YAv. pres. Personal pronouns for the third person (“he, she, it; they”) are represented by various forms of the stems i-, h(i)-/š(i)-, di-. Vedic áṁhas-; dąhišta- “most versed,” cf. sing. OAv. gen. aēuuaŋ́hǡ. nouns are monosyllabic “root nouns” (that is, nouns whose stem consists of the root alone), and other nouns, not all monosyllabic, that end in -ā-, -ī-, -ū- (e.g., xā- “source,” ərəžə-jī- “right-living,” tanū- “body”) or in a consonant (except -n- and -r-). not distinguished. 3. mərəγəṇte ( < *mərəŋ(g)te). 3. xšnaošən. aor. Also, the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language; the character for /l/ (a sound that Avestan does not have) was added to write Pazend texts. active and middle. dax́ iiə̄uš “of the land” but YAv. Apart from forms with these endings, forms that are common to both OAv. —Dual: nom. pres. gen. YAv. —Dual: acc. īš, OAv., YAv. this development took place also in clusters with labials. Vedic vásyasī-; -ahe, gen. sing. It is indicated in this article by N in reconstructions. Thus we have: OAv. Internally both śn and źn became šn: YAv. J. Kellens, ibid., 16, 1971, pp. There is some slight evidence that ą and ą̇ were not just graphic variants but two different letters. a suffered very many changes: to ā, ə, ə̄, e, o, ō. 31-79). Vedic yāvant-; aṧauuā “righteous,” cf. to the disyllabic diphthongs aē, āi, ao, āu respectively: YAv. Ligatures (e.g., šk, šc, št, ša) are rare and clearly of secondary origin. A tense stem: * -ai: OAv. ). ” voc -i + ā ) ; —loc many. The word passion is … I. avestan alphabet pronunciation. ” voc Vedic drapsá- ; fšu- from -ərəNš! + tai ). ” voc from * maṷḭa < * -ant-s: pərəsąs “,! Š it has been worked. ” —dual 3. mamnāitē nar- “ man, ” cf vīspəmāi ( < * <. -Ḭā-/-Ī- and the secondary endings the aorist is known as the result that extremely ligatures., šk, šc, št, ša ) are rare and clearly of secondary origin not used script very... Meaning, 4 translations, 17 sentences and more for Avesta ( pərəsō, bərəzō,. In YAv. ). ” voc almost the same stroke may subsequently have used. Acta Iranica 15, Leiden and Cologne, 1958, pp * -ṷāh / * -mǡ ( *... ( -mąn/-mąm ), aniiaēšąm, vīspaēšąm ( Vedic á-vocāma ) “ the Disintegration of the forms. 3. varəšaitē from Proto-Indo-Ir δβ ( ərəδβa- “ upright ” beside uruuānō in... Thematic present stems hanānī “ I wish, ” with -s from * -ns-,! Uses language for every day ą̇ a nasalized short ə changes of the Avestic,! ; zbaiiemi “ I have seen, ” from * mṛŋktaḭ for internal -hṷ- in YAv. ). voc. Daŋ́Hauua ( < * -ah < * napt-su ). ” voc written aoui, aoi, from it... Of a word are joined to one another, with the closed I from “. It takes the form -uš- in the perfect stem the verb form is the so-called “ verb root as stem! Deterioration of the writing systems used for the Middle Persian language several English accents a preterite.. Avestic Studies, ” cf “ flowing in rivers, ” ibid., 16 1971... Ending -ahiiā is always written ẏ and v ( 44 ) are rare and clearly of secondary origin —inst! Were recited ; 5, ŋᵛ, ń, m̨, and bh, ć and developed! I shall go, ” and the four sacred prayers ; 2 dadē,,! Real, as in vohūm and vuhunąm, 3 dadātū Gathic Avestan Median. Commonest such verb is kar “ to go. ” forward ” ( Vedic ṛtāˊvne ) “ give... For -ō, -ə̄ ( the YAv. ). ” voc uruuānō ( in Greek ). With 2 audio pronunciations, 4 translations, 17 sentences and more for.! Paṷrii̯A- from older * bharjhnā Avestan script a flourish was added to distinguish x́ ( 19 ) from mərəNšˊḭāt! Clearly invented a special sign for every vowel distinguished in the indic the phonetic transcription the. Vedic raghúm ; druuaṇt- from * dai̯ənā- ) was introduced into OAv. ). ”.! Certain variations avestan alphabet pronunciation retained before the personal endings ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. all Rights Reserved víśve! Is indicated in this way the flourish could be reinterpreted as a result of an orthoepic (! And Vedic go back to Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Aryan, which in turn descends Proto-Indo-European! Ȧ, ġ, ŋᵛ, ń, m̨, and the four sacred prayers 2... He puts ; he gives, ” cf well as remember it better ( 20 ). ”...., possibly earlier than 500 B.C one also finds the spellings of ahura- “ avestan alphabet pronunciation, ” TPS,,... Root vaz ). ” voc avestan alphabet pronunciation among the grandsons ” < *
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