The trafficker, (or pimp), does not see the humanity of his or her victims but only sees a product to be sold. So there's a lot of pedophilia that goes on. It is easier for human traffickers to take advantage of people who come from broken relationships or those that have no loved ones. Human trafficking doesn't involve any consent. Human Trafficking is defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as "the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud or … Such alienation fosters a sense of lost identity for victims and a sense of dependency upon their traffickers. Psychology helps improve humanity in a positive way. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Child trafficking is a significant public health problem and human rights violation affecting millions of children worldwide. Because many health care providers may not be familiar with other warning signs of human trafficking, this tactic makes identifying victims within a health care setting even more challenging. And at that time, we didn't call it trafficking. Lastly, traffickers keep victims silent by offering them a glimmer of hope. These effects are not necessarily mental health diagnoses, but are psychosocial states or symptoms that may occur in addition to other symptoms and diagnoses as a … Europe is a destination continent for sex and labor trafficking, so there's several different forms of it. They're literally naked on a table, and so as an example to everybody else who spoke or snitched, you know, basically they beat them up. And once they trust you, initially they won't talk of course, but once they trust you, you can't stop them. A centuries-old crime, human trafficking occurs not only in undeveloped countries, but also in some surprising locations. Policies for traffickers should be stricter, as well. And so when I was working with them, one of the things that comes up was organ harvesting, child brides- huge, huge issue of child brides, organ harvesting, sex tourism is very big, so especially Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, there's a massive sex tourism. Lynn Bufka: I was hoping you could start by telling me a little bit about your background and how you came to be involved in this area of work. I get them from the sheriffs in the Sheriff's Department. Because think about these kids are going to school with your kids. And the third question you can always ask, especially of a child abuse, child sexual abuse victim: did you ever feel bad about sleeping with this person? For example, if a health care provider notices signs of recent physical abuse on a person, they are obligated to call the authorities. Kalyani Gopal: There's so much now. Cause one question leads to a next question leads to a third, so just the classic interviewing technique that we’re really well trained to do. I can send money home if I have to.” So the way to identify these victims in a clinic setting, ask them three questions. Speaking of Psychology is an audio podcast series highlighting some of the latest, most important and relevant psychological research being conducted today. 11 Tips for Talking to Someone You Disagree With. It’s that severe. Traffickers also rarely target victims they don’t know. You can find this podcast on Stitcher, iTunes or wherever you find your podcasts. Kalyani Gopal: So I think the biggest, what I'd really like for everyone to know about human trafficking is that it's here. And the rest, like they say, is history. And we talk about human trafficking, and people often think, “well I have a domestic violence shelter, why can't I keep kids or women who are trafficked in that shelter?” You can't. A statistic from the International Labour Organization (2012) estimates that there are approximately 21 million victims of human trafficking globally, including 5.5 million children. So for example, a kidney, if I don't have any or if you have families with kidney failure, but the kidney that’s donated, there is a cost to it. Kalyani Gopal: We’ll keep your papers because we need to turn this over to the authorities and we can speak and convince them you know we can convince them that you're a good candidate for this job. And then those children then started having to testify in court, so then I went with them to testify. This belief can translate into women tolerating harsh, abusive situations. Human trafficking may seem like a distant problem, but we are unwittingly involved any time we buy something made by exploited labor, writes … So these kids do that just because they don't want to lose the friendship and because everybody else is doing it so of course they're gonna do it. It's like this massive shame and guilt because once they get better, once they realize they’re victims, and they, by the way, they never think of themselves as victims. Lynn Bufka: So how do individuals find their way to you if they're not seeing themselves as being trafficked? Traffickers often seek vulnerable individuals, such as the displaced or homeless, runaways, those with little social support or few resources, and individuals with psychological and emotional vulnerability. So I put them into deep relaxation and I literally do work that I've never done before in my life but I had to do it because that's what works. (Department of Homeland Security – Blue Campaign) SOURCES. Progress Notes is a podcast with practicing psychologists in mind. Labor trafficking is huge between Nigeria and Italy. An arrest, incarceration or being labeled as a criminal would also bring a great sense of shame and embarrassment to victims’ families. Of course you're going to give your papers because you want to get that job or you want to be allowed in a new country. The traffickers are the only party that gains from this inhuman ordeal, raking up to $10 billion! So in Gary, one of the houses, it had like black windows. We can teach about how to treat trauma. Kalyani Gopal: We have four hundred fifty-eight thousand missing children in the country, right? While traffickers sometimes do use violence, outright aggression can attract unwanted attention. In order to maintain control, traffickers subject their victims to physical and psychological abuse in order to foster dependency, isolation and fear. So I would imagine that in the field of trafficking, particularly around sex trafficking-. Traffickers abuse an element of their belief system to place psychological bonds on … So if you give me your kidney, I will allow your, your wife and child, one child, to come across the border. And to today that weighs on my mind as a child I could not protect. It's a supply-demand chain, so the U.S. is a destination country for sex trafficking. Students learn to identify the common dynamics of perpetration used by traffickers, their psychological consequences on victims, and the use of screening tools to identify victims and people at risk. Have you had to do something you didn't want to do? Lynn Bufka: Well I'm so happy that you were able to join us today. Is there something? One are refugees who come to the country because they're escaping political conflict. So one of the biggest things I've got from survivors, the biggest complaints we have from survivors because I host a conference every year on human trafficking, is because a very first conference we had in 2014, we had eight survivors there and all eight of them had said “please give us jobs. So we need to be out there. Approaching the topic from a law enforcement perspective, Combating Human I talk about adolescent- so I have a whole curriculum I've developed. That that kind of mentality. And then they'll send that picture back to you, the video back to you, and say if you don't do what I tell you or you don't serve as soon as a person, I'm going to send this to whoever you're married to. Over time, this psychological abuse contributes to low self-worth. The crime can include, but does not require, movement. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. You can also visit our website at and listen to other episodes there as well. Kalyani Gopal: I'm really glad you asked me that, because sex trafficking is like the sexy thing that people talk about right? Human trafficking occurs when a trafficker uses force, fraud, or coercion to compel another person to work or engage in a commercial sex act, and does not require crossing a border. Mellissa Withers is an assistant professor of global health at the University of Southern California. 35's Task Force on the Feminist Perspectives of the Trafficking of Women is a review of the crime and how it is affecting young women and girls. That’s sort of what's happening. You get back home.” What I didn't know is that she was probably being trafficked. Most human trafficking victims are in coercive or abusive situations from which escape may be difficult and dangerous. Lynn Bufka: Right. Sex trafficking, viewed as the modern day form of slavery is a worldwide problem with significant frequency in the U.S. Human traffickers target the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people. who is in charge of your money? And from then on, they're trapped. Don't just tell us you're going to get us out of this life.” They call it “the life.” They say “don't get us out of the life. Tactic 4: Keeping a Close Watch on Victims. Anything else that caused you shame or made you feel bad about yourself, about your body. What else do you think people should know about trafficking and how psychology could have- can help people in that space? Credit: Colorado Human Trafficking Council . And then after some time, they say I don't want to do it again. We're psychologists, that's what we do. How does bonding to the trafficker occur? Traffickers often take great measures to ensure that victims display no physical signs of abuse, choosing to torment the victim psychologically instead to help ensure that they don’t get caught. They're not living in our office, right? They were all locked up, there's 20 girls, 25 girls in a room all locked up in that room, and then they were disappearing the course of the night. So then because these kids were communicating with me and they wouldn't talk to other people, my professors and my supervisor said, okay, you know, why don't you talk to these kids, and I did. Because a domestic violence victim can walk out. Kalyani Gopal: And then I started working with foster kids because a lot of the kids sexually abused end up in foster care. But so there's two types of trafficking fundamentally: there's labor trafficking and there's sex trafficking. So if you don't bring X number of dollars home to the trafficker that day, you're in serious punishment: there's no food, there's no water, there's no drink, there's nothing for you. Author: Colorado Human … Lynn Bufka: Thank you for listening to this podcast. It happens in meetings. False promises of lucrative jobs, stability, education, income or romance lure in potential victims. Those who hear about the practices of human traffickers often express outrage, disbelief, disgust, anger and even confusion. Human Trafficking occurs when individuals are economically exploited through force, fraud or coercion for labor or commercial sex. Who's in charge of your money, if you're an adult, right? How Can Medical Workers Cope With COVID-19 Stress Now? So there's two types of refugees right? Images like this demonstrate how human traffickers exploit their victims through force, fraud and coercion. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman’s Framework Susie B. Baldwin1, Anne E. Fehrenbacher2, and David P. Eisenman2 Abstract This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman’s theory of coercion. Kalyani Gopal: The trafficker gets paid to traffic you. So having done all this, these years of child sexual abuse, I was now moving into the field of human trafficking. The majority of sexually exploited human trafficking victims are women and children (i.e., girls and boys). These strategies also explain why victims may not attempt to escape their traffickers even when they have the opportunity. Human trafficking is a human rights violation that involves the practice of holding another person in compelled service by force, fraud, or coercion. I know we focus on sex trafficking a lot, but that's with the minors. Lynn Bufka: And are there things to look out for for people who are being labor trafficked that might be different from sex trafficking? Human traffickers respect no boundaries. Tin mining. They say, “hey would you like to model?” And then they'll take your picture and they'll say they're going to model you. They tell victims that they’ll be thrown out and left homeless if they seek help or try to escape. Human trafficking victims chained, handcuffed, and blindfolded. I was- the first question you asked, said you should ask, is who's controlling the money? That person's in their head, you know, literally inside their head. Washington DC, five miles away from the Capitol building, is what they call the track, the “kiddie track.” Literally five miles from the Capitol building, right? So there's more conflict and politics and then there is a need for economic- they're both economically challenging aspects. The course content includes a global overview of human trafficking and how the crime unfolds within the United States. Human traffickers are highly skilled at what they do, so it is our job to be highly skilled at knowing what to look for and how to combat this issue. The Trinidad and Tobago Guardian is the longest running daily newspaper in the country, marking its centenary in 2017. Because if we have jobs, we won't go back. While a lack of physical abuse may seem positive, traffickers often make a concerted effort to avoid physical abuse and keep their criminal activity under the radar. Who am I? A new theory aims to make sense of it all. They think of themselves as just being the girlfriend. Human Trafficking: Defining the Phenomenon Human trafficking is a human rights violation that involves the practice of holding another person in compelled service by force, fraud, or coercion. One: who's in charge of your money? So I got involved with all of that. So the parents were trafficking their own children. You know, there's pain through the cigarette butts being put on them. So think of the Boko Haram children, the girls who were kidnapped, everyone knows about that, they were also trafficked, sexually trafficked, but they're also labor trafficked. A little bit of love, and then massive doses of punishment. Welcome to the show. So if we go there and say “I'm so sorry you’re victimized by human trafficking and this guy is your pimp,” she doesn't know, he's not my pimp. Thank you for being here. Traffickers love to prey on the desperate, and when times are tough, there’s plenty of desperation to go around. The Middle East is a destination country for labor trafficking. What am I doing with community stuff, you know? So for example, in DRC which is DR Congo in Africa, they have a region called Kivu, and we were working with some of the folks out there, and what happens is there's, there’s tin, they mine, they're mining with tin. It's like a harem, so each woman has a role in that harem. He’s psychologically right there. Labor trafficking involves organ harvesting. And so they will sit here they will put their legs up there and they will just hold themselves like this for hours, and you cannot speak to them because in their heads, their trafficker is looking right at them. In May alone, we had 11,500 children who are unaccompanied. Lynn Bufka: What does someone who has been trafficked, if they get out of the situation, what is it that they can do or what seems to help them to rebuild their lives? Just three. And in that kiddie track you have young girls being trafficked. Once you arrive in the new country, you'll never get your papers back. Traffickers may constantly remind victims that they are always being watched, even by their co-workers. "Psychology can do so much to help, but we're very late to the table. With the input of psychology these women could have the opportunity to move forward, which is an opportunity that everyone deserves. Give us jobs. This workshop is designed specifically for frontline professionals working directly with survivors of Human Trafficking (HT). Lynn Bufka: Because they're being manipulated. From the view of the economy, health, psychology and the society, the effects are scary. (2020). A human trafficking victim should not be allowed to walk out because when they walk out, they go to their trafficker. And they're not hallucinating. They were talking about human trafficking… in northern Virginia and it was a very large case. Again, I’m Lynn Bufka with the American Psychological Association. It is- they will sit in my office, and I work with severe sexual abuse, so don't get me wrong, I've worked with very, very severe sexual abuse cases, which you know they fragment their personalities too. It introduces the four psychological profiles commonly observed in this population. The proportions I can't even explain to you how, how seriously in, how seriously they impact families within this country as well. Thank you for having me here. And years, and then when I left there eight months later, they actually had me sign a paper saying that I would not disclose what I'd found in the jail. 'The Psychology of Modern Day Slavery,' a film developed, directed and produced by Div. Three concepts that explain the root causes of human trafficking are deindividuation, conformity, frustration-aggression hypothesis. Kalyani Gopal, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and the executive director of the organization SAFE: Sexual Trafficking Awareness Freedom and Empowerment. The windows were, there was black paper put on the windows, and inside the stage like this, a little stage, chairs just like that, and people were paying $10 a piece to come in to watch these kids do tricks, what they call tricks, on each other. So I guess that's really where I started working with victims of trafficking without knowing myself I was doing that. What-what happens to the person? And I've developed this program because we have 10 modules covering all the way from infancy labor sex trafficking all the, because people don't talk much about labor trafficking, so thank you so much for bringing it up again and again. Being put in jail may be a victim’s worst nightmare and will be avoided at all costs. Lynn Bufka: And that that can be used in manipulative ways that-, Lynn Bufka: -were not present twenty years ago. ... Human traffickers may be linked to highly-organized international criminal networks, they may be involved in smaller domestic networks, they may be part of a ‘family business’ or they may operate very small scale, virtually on their own. So he- it's a manipulation, it's a dehumanization of an individual with it's almost like an addictive force. So I went to this jail which is called Tihar jail. And then years later when I came to this country, I was doing my doctorate in Vanderbilt University, and then a little girl, a seven-year-old girl sat on my lap and she said “my dad's touching me.” And I didn't know what that was. It could be here, it could be Serbia, it could be anywhere in the world. Has he made you sleep with other men? You talk about informed consent all the time, right, they are consenting to be smuggled across borders. Human Trafficking. Progress Notes I host a conference like I said on human trafficking, I had somebody come in 2014 my 20- my first conference, and the guy had an NGO that are volunteers. A session with them is about three hours. So in certain, certain situations for example in labor trafficking, usually with organ harvesting, for me that's like really big because that's one of the biggest forms of labor trafficking. You can’t go shorter than three hours because there's so much they've held in. I actually came to this country to learn more about intellectual and cognitive neuropsych work, but I ended up doing child sexual abuse and forensic work, cause these kids were talking to me. Traffickers might use violence, manipulation, or false promises of well-paying jobs or romantic relationships to lure victims into trafficking situations. You can say that psychology somewhat studies the flaws of humanity to come up with solutions for them. They're, they’re political refugees. They're living every day in the community. I was overwhelmed by how big it is, and it happens not only across borders but within countries as well. Psychological entrapment. You know usually with trauma patients you say “don't touch them, don't go near them.” With them, they literally need you to hold them. That's very, very big. And it was important, I learned something important, it’s distinct from smuggling. Tavrow identified seven ways that traffickers psychologically manipulate their victims to keep them enslaved, which she outlined in a presentation made in 2015 in Japan regarding a labor trafficking survivor’s experiences. It involves deception, so it's fraud, coercion, deception. Human traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to trap their victims into lives of labor or sexual servitude. Mental enslavement is a cost-effective, low-risk approach—one that often doesn’t attract unwanted attention from law enforcement. Usually it’s the mother's boyfriend, because the mother, knows that you're, she- that you had sex with the boyfriend or the husband because in exchange, she was able to pay rent. They're not coming back. That's where our patients are. You have to give me something else in order for your other child to come across the border. Kalyani Gopal: So the deputies in the Sheriff's Department will send them to me. It's happening here. In the Benin region of Nigeria, traffickers recruit the Edo People using a unique method. So I get them from a variety of different. Kalyani Gopal: That's very well said because human smuggling involves money at the reception at the receiving end. Right here in the United States, individuals are recruited, transported, and held by unlawful means either through deception or under threat of violence. There's so much rehab, so I'm building a village for human trafficking victims. This is just another tactic to extend enslavement and may continue indefinitely unless the victim receives help. At that time I was so young myself, I'm so innocent at that time, I didn't know. But with the older people, the older adults, labor trafficking would be where they take an organ in exchange for safe passage of your family. What are you doing at 9 o'clock at night outside? Data and information about how people come to commit trafficking crimes, their respective roles in networks of traffickers, their relationships to other criminals and Unfortunately, it appears that these tactics are commonly used by human traffickers to manipulate, defraud and exploit victims to keep them enslaved through dependency, coercion, and fear. That's the first stage. And we're building it in Indiana, and we have a whole restorative treatment, trauma-informed, trauma-based, evidence-based and non-evidence-based treatments where we are actually going to be having a hundred children and they're really they're trying to raise twice a million dollars, just so you know. This is so important. Kalyani Gopal: So labor trafficking has a very different dynamic than sex trafficking. A policy brief developed by the Research-to-Policy Collaboration with support from the Society for Community Research and Action. When you think of a human trafficking victim, what comes to mind? Sex Trafficking: Should Parents Be Worried. Lynn Bufka: Can you help listeners understand what human trafficking is? Or they'll make you do certain poses and they'll put that and they can digitally change you so that you are actually performing an act. They are controlled through physical, psychological… I get them from the Homeland Security Department. I became my pimp’s girl?” You know, they have their- they identify themselves very street language, which I won't use, but they have very specific language how they identify themselves. And then the second question you always want to ask is have you been made to do something you didn't want to do? That literally is human trafficking. Introduction. Research evidence on the health needs of human trafficking victims has been hugely influential – shaping international response and developing training materials used in over 155 countries. Kalyani Gopal: Ninety percent they didn't even know were missing. Traffickers promise a high-paying job, a loving relationship, or new and exciting opportunities and then use physical and psychological violence to control them. So I've had to modify everything I've learned in order to be able to reach out to them. Lynn Bufka: So how can the average person recognize whether or not someone's being trafficked when that person themselves doesn't necessarily recognize it? What- what is it that they can do to try to, to escape that manipulation? In fact, in Nigeria, human trafficking is the third most common crime after financial fraud and drug trafficking. [2] The majority of research related to the mental health needs of this population focuses on the significant levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (International Organization for Migration, 2006; Pico-Alfonso, 2005; Zimmerman et al., 2006). This is the Hollywood version, but rarely the reality. Knowing these things better enables law enforcement to combat human trafficking. Human traffickers prey on people who are hoping for a better life, lack employment opportunities, have an unstable home life, or have a history of sexual or physical abuse. Lynn Bufka: Right, and they, they would need time to, sort of, get out but then to be safe enough to then leave your office I would imagine. Victims may even believe they are at fault for their abusive situations because they were foolish enough to be tricked in the first place. So we’re trying to raise all that money so we could build the very first human trafficking safe village that is actually built by psychologists, run by psychologists and mental health professionals, and the vets are going to be providing us the security. These tactics instill fear and a sense of obligation for victims to do acts they would not otherwise do. Kalyani Gopal: Absolutely, absolutely. But really we need to get out there in the community because that's really where human trafficking is happening. Keywords Psychotherapy Á Multicultural Á Human trafficking Á Trauma Á Services Working with Victims of Human Trafficking Human trafficking has recently come to be increasingly recognized as a problem, and in first world countries, has emerged as a frontier for policing, social work, and clinical psychology. Traffickers torment victims by instilling false fears over worst-case scenarios. Kalyani Gopal: Sure. In research on the topic, trauma bonding is commonly referred to as “Stockholm Syndrome,” and the terms may be used interchangeably. In a special bonus episode filmed at APA 2019, the annual meeting of the association, APA Associate Executive Director, Practice Research and Policy Lynn Bufka, PhD, talks with Kalyani Gopal, PhD, executive director of the organization Sexual Trafficking Awareness Freedom and Empowerment, on the problem of sexual trafficking of children worldwide, the damage it does to victims’ mental health and what psychologists are doing to help address the issue. So I need all your papers. Approximately 40 million people worldwide, including many in the United States, are estimated to be victims of human trafficking — a form of modern-day slavery in which traffickers use force, fraud, or coercion to control both adults and children. That picture, your face, goes on somebody else's body. According to a 2019 study by the National Institute of Justice, “Only a fraction of the estimated human trafficking victimization is captured in either law enforcement and service provider data”. human traffickers - those who enable or partake in the trade and exploitation of individual human beings. She served on the APA’s Presidential Task Force on the Trafficking of Women and Girls. Paula Tavrow, Ph.D., MSc, MALD is the director of UCLA’s Bixby Program in Population and Reproductive Health and Associate Adjunct Professor in the Community Health Sciences Department at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. A young woman who has been kidnapped, drugged and bound as she is transported across borders? Paola M. Contreras, PsyD, is a licensed psychologist and faculty at the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology where she directs the Counseling Psychology in Global Mental Health Program.